The Rwandan government says “defensive measures were taken” on a Democratic Republic of Congo fighter jet that “violated" its airspace on Tuesday evening.
Images shared on social media show a military plane being shot at while flying at a low altitude between the towns of Goma in DR Congo and Gisenyi in Rwanda.
Other images show the damaged plane – a Soviet Union-made Sukhoi-25 – being cooled down with water at Goma airport.
In a statement, DR Congo's information ministry condemned the incident and denied that its jet had flown over Rwandan airspace.
It said the government "does not intend to let this [incident] go" and had the "legitimate right" to defend itself.
"The government considers this umpteenth attack by Rwanda as a deliberate action of aggression that is equivalent to an act of war," the ministry noted.
Rwanda said this was the third incident involving a Congolese fighter jet on its airspace and asked its neighbour "to stop this aggression”.
Last November, a Congolese Sukhoi-25 jet briefly landed at Gisenyi airport in Rwanda. Kinshasa said the fighter jet had “mistakenly landed” there.
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DR Congo accuses Rwanda of supporting M23 rebels, which Kigali authorities have consistently denied.
The latest incident adds to the tensions between the two neighbours.